A very common way of getting started in property development and investment is converting or renovating a mixed use development.
‘Mixed-Use’ can mean a combination of Residential, Office or Retail within a single development (it’s highly unlikely Industrial type properties would be included in this, for example I can’t imagine a residential flat being situated above an industrial unit). So an example of this could be a shop with a flat/flats above it, or offices with residential above. Incidentally the residential portion is situated towards the top of the property because it’s not likely to require a street-level frontage, like a shop or an office might. The residential area of the property also tends to be quieter and the commercial occupants are less likely to have cause to go upstairs into this area of the property.
It is certainly possible to convert only part of a property to a use that’s different to the original one. Be aware though that (currently) Planning Consent is required to change the use of a property (or part of a property) from Commercial to Residential and between sub-groups within Commercial. Building Regulations also need to be fully complied with.
The different ways of occupying a property are:
1. Freehold. This is the closest to owning the property outright (It’s only a Government body which can carry out compulsory purchase though). The Freeholder theoretically owns the plot, the land beneath the plot and the area above it (although this isn’t really enforceable in reality). Being a Freeholder offers the luxury of selling a leasehold interest in the property if he/she wishes.
2. Leasehold. This is usually for a period of time (term) of 99 years or more (sometimes 999 years). The freeholder effectively sells the right to use the property for the term stated in the contract. Along with this, the Leaseholder sometimes receives the right to allow Tenants to occupy the property and collect the rent. In order to reduce the chances of confusion, this is often called the Long-Leasehold interest. It is bought in a similar way to the Freehold Interest (i.e. a large amount of capital is paid for it, rather than a monthly or quarterly rent).
3. Tenancy. This is really just a different way of occupying the property under a leasehold interest, however for the purpose of avoiding confusion over these occupancies, I refer to it as a Tenancy (even though the occupational contract is still called a Lease…). This is paid for in the form of rent, usually paid monthly or quarterly (depending on it being Residential or Commercial). A tenancy is always shorter than the long-leasehold interest (even if it’s only 1 day shorter) but is usually much shorter, between 3 and 25 years is usual. A tenancy does not really have much value in itself other than to the landlord. This is because it’s not really possible to sell a tenancy by itself; you can however purchase the leasehold interest with a tenant already in place.
Commercial and Residential tenancies are usually quite different. The main issue is that all Commercial tenancies are awarded Security of Tenure unless specifically contracted out of it. This means that a Commercial landlord can only make the tenant leave the premise at the end of the term in certain circumstances (for example if the landlord wants to redevelop the property and has plans in place to prove this). To contract out of this, the lease agreement must specifically state that both parties wish to contract out of the Security of Tenure provisions of Part 2 of The Landlord and Tenant Act 1954, s 24-28 (or words to the same effect). Contracting out of the act should benefit both parties (such as when a lower rent is agreed upon to reflect a lower ‘risk’ to the landlord).
In contrast, Residential tenancies tend to be more heavily weighted in favour of the Landlord. A tenant does not really have any Security of Tenure at the end of the term. Many Residential tenancies are only for an initial period of 6 months. If the tenant stays in the property with the permission of the landlord at the end of the term, a Periodic Tenancy is formed. If the tenant pays rent on a monthly or weekly basis, this period becomes the notice period for either party to bring the tenancy to an end. A periodic tenancy continues until the landlord or the tenant brings it to an end.
It’s important to have an understanding of how the different types of occupation work. When developers of mixed use properties consider their projects, they intend it to work in a slightly different way to the usual private residential developer. Where a private developer buys a property at a reduced price, spends the bare minimum but produces a good finish then sells on to a new owner, a mixed use development often requires a different approach. Of course it is possible to buy and sell a mixed use development in the same way as a small residential (i.e. the freehold), but because of the combination of property types within the development it usually makes more sense to keep the freehold of the property and sell the long-leasehold interest as and when an occupier or investor is found.
If the freehold is retained, tenants can be found to occupy the office or retail portion. The residential areas of the building can be let the same way as the commercial but this involves a lot of management of tenants taking 6 or 12 month tenancies and of course, the developer will not receive capital in return in a lump sum. It’s far better to sell the long-leasehold interest in the residential units to either investors or leasehold-occupiers. This way, a profit can be made (the value of a long-leasehold interest is more-or-less the same as the freehold price) on individual units of the property. Investors or leasehold-occupiers can buy individual long-leaseholds interests one-by-one if necessary. If the residential units are above the ground floor, it is not possible to sell any of the freehold interests in these. A freehold must always be on the ground floor or associated with a property on a ground floor. If an investor purchases any of the long-leasehold interests, they will be obliged to honour any tenancies that might have been agreed prior to their completion.
It’s also important to understand how service charges apply to a property of mixed uses. A service charge is essentially a further charge to the tenant(s) to contribute to the upkeep of common areas such as grounds maintenance or cleaning and decorating of hallways and stairwells. Service charges should be ‘fair and reasonable’ and not produce a profit or a loss for the landlord. For Commercial tenants, The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors publish a Code of Practice guide on service charges. The method of dealing with dispute resolution will be stated in the lease. Residential tenancy service charges however, are very strictly regulated. A landlord who doesn’t follow the statutory procedures might find himself limited under law as to how much can be recovered from the tenant at the end of the occupancy.
Tenants should be supplied with a schedule of the previous year’s service costs and justification of the current level of charge. In a mixed use property however, tenants will occupy different sized areas and even use different facilities in the property. For example a Commercial tenant on the ground floor would not be expected to pay for the upkeep of a lift to service the residential units on the floors above. The principle way of deciding who should pay for what, is to consider which property a particular service will benefit. A Commercial tenant should have the opportunity of negotiating the service charge. It is sometimes possible to opt out of the charge for services that are available but will not be used.